Jacques Cousteau

Jacques-Yves Cousteau AC (French: [ʒak iv kusto]; commonly known in English as Jacques Cousteau; 11 June 1910 – 25 June 1997) was a French naval officer, explorer, conservationist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. He co-developed the Aqua-Lung, pioneered marine conservation and was a member of the Académie française.

Cousteau described his underwater world research in series of books, perhaps most successful being his first book, The Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and Adventure, published in 1953. Cousteau also directed films, most notably the documentary adaptation of the book, The Silent World, which won a Palme d'or at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival. He remained the only person to win a Palme d'Or for a documentary film, until Michael Moore won the award in 2004 for Fahrenheit 9/11.

    Biography

    "The sea, the great unifier, is man's only hope. Now, as never before,
    the old phrase has a literal meaning: We are all in the same boat."

    Jacques Cousteau

    Early years

    Cousteau was born on 11 June 1910, in Saint-André-de-Cubzac, Gironde, France to Daniel and Élisabeth Cousteau. He had one brother, Pierre-Antoine. Cousteau completed his preparatory studies at the Collège Stanislas in Paris. In 1930, he entered the École Navale and graduated as a gunnery officer. After an automobile accident cut short his career in naval aviation, Cousteau indulged his interest in the sea.

    In Toulon, where he was serving on the Condorcet, Cousteau carried out his first underwater experiments, thanks to his friend Philippe Tailliez who in 1936 lent him some Fernez underwater goggles, predecessors of modern swimming goggles. Cousteau also belonged to the information service of the French Navy, and was sent on missions to Shanghai and Japan (1935–1938) and in the USSR (1939).[]

    On 12 July 1937 he married Simone Melchior, with whom he had two sons, Jean-Michel (born 1938) and Philippe (1940–1979). His sons took part in the adventures of the Calypso. In 1991, one year after his wife Simone's death from cancer, he married Francine Triplet. They already had a daughter Diane Cousteau (born 1980) and a son Pierre-Yves Cousteau (born 1982), born during Cousteau's marriage to his first wife.

    Early 1940s: Innovation of modern underwater diving

    The years of World War II were decisive for the history of diving. After the armistice of 1940, the family of Simone and Jacques-Yves Cousteau took refuge in Megève, where he became a friend of the Ichac family who also lived there. Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Marcel Ichac shared the same desire to reveal to the general public unknown and inaccessible places — for Cousteau the underwater world and for Ichac the high mountains. The two neighbors took the first ex-aequo prize of the in 1943, for the first French underwater film: Par dix-huit mètres de fond (18 meters deep), made without breathing apparatus the previous year in the Embiez islands (Var) with Philippe Tailliez and Frédéric Dumas, using a depth-pressure-proof camera case developed by mechanical engineer Léon Vèche (engineer of Arts and Métiers and the Naval College).

    In 1943, they made the film Épaves (Shipwrecks), in which they used two of the very first Aqua-Lung prototypes. These prototypes were made in Boulogne-Billancourt by the Air Liquide company, following instructions from Cousteau and Émile Gagnan. When making Épaves, Cousteau could not find the necessary blank reels of movie film, but had to buy hundreds of small still camera film reels the same width, intended for a make of child's camera, and cemented them together to make long reels.

    Having kept bonds with the English speakers (he spent part of his childhood in the United States and usually spoke English) and with French soldiers in North Africa (under Admiral ), Jacques-Yves Cousteau (whose villa "Baobab" at Sanary (Var) was opposite Admiral Darlan's villa "Reine"), helped the French Navy to join again with the Allies; he assembled a commando operation against the Italian espionage services in France, and received several military decorations for his deeds. At that time, he kept his distance from his brother Pierre-Antoine Cousteau, a "pen anti-semite" who wrote the collaborationist newspaper Je suis partout (I am everywhere) and who received the death sentence in 1946. However, this was later commuted to a life sentence, and Pierre-Antoine was released in 1954.

    During the 1940s, Cousteau is credited with improving the aqua-lung design which gave birth to the open-circuit scuba technology used today. According to his first book, The Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and Adventure (1953), Cousteau started diving with Fernez goggles in 1936, and in 1939 used the self-contained underwater breathing apparatus invented in 1926 by Commander Yves le Prieur. Cousteau was not satisfied with the length of time he could spend underwater with the Le Prieur apparatus so he improved it to extend underwater duration by adding a demand regulator, invented in 1942 by Émile Gagnan. In 1943 Cousteau tried out the first prototype aqua-lung which finally made extended underwater exploration possible.

    Late 1940s: GERS and Élie Monnier

    In 1946, Cousteau and Tailliez showed the film "Épaves" to Admiral Lemonnier, and the admiral gave them the responsibility of setting up the Groupement de Recherches Sous-marines (GRS) (Underwater Research Group) of the French Navy in Toulon. A little later it became the GERS (Groupe d'Études et de Recherches Sous-Marines, = Underwater Studies and Research Group), then the COMISMER ("COMmandement des Interventions Sous la MER", = "Undersea Interventions Command"), and finally more recently the CEPHISMER. In 1947, Chief Petty Officer Maurice Fargues became the first diver to die using an aqualung while attempting a new depth record with the GERS near Toulon.

    In 1948, between missions of mine clearance, underwater exploration and technological and physiological tests, Cousteau undertook a first campaign in the Mediterranean on board the sloop Élie Monnier, with Philippe Tailliez, Frédéric Dumas, Jean Alinat and the scenario writer Marcel Ichac. The small team also undertook the exploration of the Roman wreck of Mahdia (Tunisia). It was the first underwater archaeology operation using autonomous diving, opening the way for scientific underwater archaeology. Cousteau and Marcel Ichac brought back from there the Carnets diving film (presented and preceded with the Cannes Film Festival 1951).

    Cousteau and the Élie Monnier then took part in the rescue of Professor Jacques Piccard's bathyscaphe, the FNRS-2, during the 1949 expedition to Dakar. Thanks to this rescue, the French Navy was able to reuse the sphere of the bathyscaphe to construct the FNRS-3.

    The adventures of this period are told in the two books The Silent World (1953, by Cousteau and Dumas) and Plongées sans câble (1954, by Philippe Tailliez).

    1950–1970s

    In 1949, Cousteau left the French Navy.

    In 1950, he founded the French Oceanographic Campaigns (FOC), and leased a ship called Calypso from Thomas Loel Guinness for a symbolic one franc a year. Cousteau refitted the Calypso as a mobile laboratory for field research and as his principal vessel for diving and filming. He also carried out underwater archaeological excavations in the Mediterranean, in particular at (1952).

    With the publication of his first book in 1953, The Silent World, he correctly predicted the existence of the echolocation abilities of porpoises. He reported that his research vessel, the Élie Monier, was heading to the Straits of Gibraltar and noticed a group of porpoises following them. Cousteau changed course a few degrees off the optimal course to the center of the strait, and the porpoises followed for a few minutes, then diverged toward mid-channel again. It was evident that they knew where the optimal course lay, even if the humans did not. Cousteau concluded that the cetaceans had something like sonar, which was a relatively new feature on submarines.

    Cousteau won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 1956 for The Silent World co-produced with Louis Malle. With the assistance of Jean Mollard, he made a "diving saucer" SP-350, an experimental underwater vehicle which could reach a depth of 350 meters. The successful experiment was quickly repeated in 1965 with two vehicles which reached 500 meters.

    In 1957, he was elected as director of the Oceanographical Museum of Monaco. He directed Précontinent, about the experiments of diving in saturation (long-duration immersion, houses under the sea), and was admitted to the United States National Academy of Sciences.

    He was involved in the creation of Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques and served as its inaugural president from 1959 to 1973.

    In October 1960, a large amount of radioactive waste was going to be discarded in the Mediterranean Sea by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique (CEA). The CEA argued that the dumps were experimental in nature, and that French oceanographers such as had recommended it. Romanovsky and other French scientists, including and Jacques Cousteau, repudiated the claim, saying that Romanovsky had in mind a much smaller amount. The CEA claimed that there was little circulation (and hence little need for concern) at the dump site between Nice and Corsica, but French public opinion sided with the oceanographers rather than with the CEA atomic energy scientists. The CEA chief, Francis Perrin, decided to postpone the dump. Cousteau organized a publicity campaign which in less than two weeks gained wide popular support. The train carrying the waste was stopped by women and children sitting on the railway tracks, and it was sent back to its origin.

    Cousteau on the Calypso.

    A meeting with American television companies (ABC, Métromédia, NBC) created the series The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau, with the character of the commander in the red bonnet inherited from standard diving dress) intended to give the films a "personalized adventure" style. This documentary television series ran for ten years from 1966 to 1976. A second documentary series, The Cousteau Odyssey, ran from 1977 to 1982, among others.

    In 1970, he wrote the book The Shark: Splendid Savage of the Sea with his son Philippe. In this book, Costeau described the oceanic whitetip shark as "the most dangerous of all sharks".

    In 1973, along with his two sons and Frederick Hyman, he created the Cousteau Society for the Protection of Ocean Life, Frederick Hyman being its first President; it now has more than 300,000 members.

    In 1975, John Denver released the tribute song "Calypso" on his album "Windsong", and on the B-side of his hit song "I'm Sorry". "Calypso" became a hit on its own and was later considered the new A-side, reaching #2 on the charts.

    In December 1975, two years after the volcano's last eruption, The Cousteau Society was filming Voyage au bout du monde on Deception Island, Antarctica, when Michel Laval, Calypso's second in command, was struck and killed by a rotor of the helicopter that was ferrying between Calypso and the island.

    In 1976, Cousteau uncovered the wreck of HMHS Britannic. He also found the wreck of the French 17th-century ship-of-the-line La Therese in coastal waters of Crete.

    In 1977, together with Peter Scott, he received the UN International Environment prize.

    On 28 June 1979, while the Calypso was on an expedition to Portugal, his second son Philippe, his preferred and designated successor and with whom he had co-produced all his films since 1969, died in a PBY Catalina flying boat crash in the Tagus river near Lisbon. Cousteau was deeply affected. He called his then eldest son, the architect Jean-Michel, to his side. This collaboration lasted 14 years.

    1980–1990s

    From 1980 to 1981, he was a regular on the animal reality show Those Amazing Animals, along with , Priscilla Presley, and Jim Stafford.

    Cousteau's Diving Saucer

    In 1980, Cousteau traveled to Canada to make two films on the Saint Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, Cries from the Deep and St. Lawrence: Stairway to the Sea.

    In 1985, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from Ronald Reagan.

    On 24 November 1988, he was elected to the Académie française, chair 17, succeeding Jean Delay. His official reception under the cupola took place on 22 June 1989, the response to his speech of reception being given by Bertrand Poirot-Delpech. After his death, he was replaced by Érik Orsenna on 28 May 1998.

    In June 1990, the composer Jean Michel Jarre paid homage to the commander by entitling his new album Waiting for Cousteau. He also composed the music for Cousteau's documentary "Palawan, the last refuge".

    On 2 December 1990, his wife Simone Cousteau died of cancer.

    In June 1991, in Paris, Jacques-Yves Cousteau remarried, to Francine Triplet, with whom he had (before this marriage) two children, Diane and Pierre-Yves. Francine Cousteau currently continues her husband's work as the head of the Cousteau Foundation and Cousteau Society. From that point, the relations between Jacques-Yves and his elder son worsened.

    In November 1991, Cousteau gave an interview to the UNESCO Courier, in which he stated that he was in favour of human population control and population decrease. Widely quoted on the Internet are these two paragraphs from the interview: "What should we do to eliminate suffering and disease? It's a wonderful idea but perhaps not altogether a beneficial one in the long run. If we try to implement it we may jeopardize the future of our species...It's terrible to have to say this. World population must be stabilized and to do that we must eliminate 350,000 people per day. This is so horrible to contemplate that we shouldn't even say it. But the general situation in which we are involved is lamentable".

    In 1992, he was invited to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the United Nations' International Conference on Environment and Development, and then he became a regular consultant for the UN and the World Bank.

    In 1996, he sued his son who wished to open a holiday centre named "Cousteau" in the Fiji Islands.

    On 11 January 1996, Calypso was rammed and sunk in Singapore Harbour by a barge. The Calypso was refloated and towed home to France.

    Death

    Jacques-Yves Cousteau died of a heart attack on 25 June 1997 in Paris, aged 87. Despite persistent rumors, encouraged by some Islamic publications and websites, Cousteau did not convert to Islam, and when he died he was buried in a Roman Catholic Christian funeral. He was buried in the family vault at Saint-André-de-Cubzac in France. An homage was paid to him by the city by the inauguration of a "rue du Commandant Cousteau", a street which runs out to his native house, where a commemorative plaque was affixed.

    Honours

    During his lifetime, Jacques-Yves Cousteau received these distinctions:

    • Cross of War 1939–1945 (1945)
    • National Geographic Society's Special Gold Medal in 1961
    • Commander of the Legion of Honour (1972)
    • Officer of the Order of Maritime Merit (1980)
    • Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit (1985)
    • U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedom (1985)
    • Induction into the Television Hall of Fame (1987)
    • Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters
    • Honorary Companion of the Order of Australia (26 January 1990)

    Legacy

    Cousteau's submarine near Oceanographic Museum in Monaco

    Cousteau's legacy includes more than 120 television documentaries, more than 50 books, and an environmental protection foundation with 300,000 members.

    Cousteau liked to call himself an "oceanographic technician." He was, in reality, a sophisticated showman, teacher, and lover of nature. His work permitted many people to explore the resources of the oceans.

    His work also created a new kind of scientific communication, criticised at the time by some academics. The so-called "divulgationism", a simple way of sharing scientific concepts, was soon employed in other disciplines and became one of the most important characteristics of modern television broadcasting.

    The Cousteau Society and its French counterpart, l'Équipe Cousteau, both of which Jacques-Yves Cousteau founded, are still active today. The Society is currently attempting to turn the original Calypso into a museum and it is raising funds to build a successor vessel, the Calypso II.

    In his last years, after marrying again, Cousteau became involved in a legal battle with his son Jean-Michel over Jean-Michel licensing the Cousteau name for a South Pacific resort, resulting in Jean-Michel Cousteau being ordered by the court not to encourage confusion between his for-profit business and his father's non-profit endeavours.

    In 2007, the International Watch Company introduced the IWC Aquatimer Chronograph "Cousteau Divers" Special Edition. The timepiece incorporated a sliver of wood from the interior of Cousteau's Calypso research vessel. Having developed the diver's watch, IWC offered support to The Cousteau Society. The proceeds from the timepieces' sales were partially donated to the non-profit organization involved into conservation of marine life and preservation of tropical coral reefs.

    Religious views

    Though he was not particularly a religious man, Cousteu believed that the teachings of the different major religions provide valuable ideals and thoughts to protect the environment. In a Chapter entitled "The Holy Scriptures and The Environment" in the posthumous work The Human, the Orchid, and the Octopus, he is quoted as stating that "The glory of nature provides evidence that God exists".

    Filmography

    # Year French English Cousteau Film
    1. Films I
    1F 1956 Le Monde du silence The Silent World Yes
    2S 1958/1959 Histoire d’un poisson rouge The Golden Fish Yes
    3F 1964/1965 Le Monde sans soleil World Without Sun Yes
    2. The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau I
    1 1966 L’aventure Précontinent The World of Jacques-Yves Cousteau Yes
    2 1967/1968 Les Requins Sharks Yes
    3 1967/1968 La jungle de corail The Savage World of the Coral Jungle Yes
    4 1968 Search in the Deep Yes
    5 1968 Baleines et cachalots Whales Yes
    6 1968/1969 Le voyage surprise de Pepito et Cristobal The Unexpected Voyage of Pepito and Cristobal Yes
    7 1968/1969 Trésor englouti Sunken Treasure Yes
    8 1968/1969 La légende du lac Titicaca The Legend of Lake Titicaca Yes
    9 1969 Les baleines du désert The Desert Whales Yes
    10 1969/1970 La nuit des calmars The Night of the Squid Yes
    11 1969/1970 La retour des Éléphants de mer The Return of the Sea Elephants Yes
    12 1970 Ces incroyables machines plongeantes Those Incredible Diving Machines Yes
    13 1970 La mer vivante The Water Planet Yes
    14 1970 La tragédie des Saumons rouges The Tragedy of the Red Salmon Yes
    15 1970/1971 Le lagon des navires perdus Lagoon of Lost Ships Yes
    16 1971 Les Dragons des Galápagos The Dragons of the Galapagos Yes
    17 1971 Cavernes englouties Secrets of the Sunken Caves Yes
    18 1971 Le sort des Loutres de mer The Unsinkable Sea Otter! Yes
    19 1971/1972 Pieuvre, petite pieuvre Octopus, Octopus Yes
    20 1971/1972 Les dernières Sirènes The Forgotten Mermaids Yes
    21 1972 Le chant des dauphins A Sound of Dolphins Yes
    22 1972/1973 Le sourire du Morse A Smile of the Walrus Yes
    23 1973 500 millions d’années sous la mer 500 Million Years Beneath the Sea Yes
    24 1973 Hippo, Hippo Hippo! Yes
    25 1973 La baleine qui chante The Singing Whale Yes
    26 1973/1974 Mission Cousteau en Antarctique. Partie I. La glace et le feu Cousteau in the Antarctic. Part I. South to Fire and Ice Yes
    27 1974 Mission Cousteau en Antarctique. Partie II. Le vol du Pingouin Cousteau in the Antarctic. Part II. The Flight of Penguins Yes
    28 1974 Mission Cousteau en Antarctique. Partie III. La vie sous un océan de glace Cousteau in the Antarctic. Part III. Beneath the Frozen World Yes
    29 1974 Mission Cousteau en Antarctique. Partie IV. Blizzard à Esperanza Cousteau in the Antarctic. Part IV. Blizzard at Hope Bay Yes
    30 1974/1975 Patagonie: La vie au bout du monde Life at the End of the World Yes
    31 1975 L’hiver des Castors Beavers of the North Country Yes
    32 1975 Les Fous du Corail The Coral Divers of Corsica Yes
    33 1975 Les requins dormeurs du Yucatán The Sleeping Sharks of Yucatán Yes
    34 1975/1976 Coup d’aile sous la mer: Isabella The Sea Birds of Isabella Yes
    35 1976 Mysteries of the Hidden Reefs Yes
    36 1976 Le Poisson qui a gobé Jonas The Fish That Swallowed Jonah Yes
    37 1976 The Incredible March of the Spiny Lobsters Yes
    3. Films II
    4F* 1976 Voyage au bout du monde Voyage to the Edge of the World Yes
    4. Oasis in Space
    1S 1977 What Price Progress? No
    2S 1977 Troubled Waters No
    3S 1977 Grain of Conscience No
    4S 1977 Population Time Bomb No
    5S 1977 The Power Game No
    6S 1977 Visions of Tomorrow No
    5. The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau II
    38 1977 L’énigme du Britannic Calypso’s Search for the Britannic Yes
    39 1978 Le butin de Pergame sauvé des eaux Diving for Roman Plunder Yes
    40 1978 À la recherche de l’Atlantide. Partie I Calypso’s Search for Atlantis. Part I Yes
    41 1978 À la recherche de l’Atlantide. Partie II Calypso’s Search for Atlantis. Part II Yes
    42 1978 Le testament de l'île de Pâques Blind Prophets of Easter Island Yes
    43 1978 Ultimatum sous la mer Time Bomb at Fifty Fathoms Yes
    44 1979 Le sang de la mer Mediterranean: Cradle or Coffin? Yes
    45 1979 Le Nil. Partie I The Nile. Part I Yes
    46 1979 Le Nil. Partie II The Nile. Part II Yes
    47 1980 Fortunes de mer Lost Relics of the Sea Yes
    48 1980/1981 Clipperton: île de la solitude Clipperton: The Island Time Forgot Yes
    49 1981/1982 Sang chaud dans la mer Warm-Blooded Sea: Mammals of the Deep Yes
    6. North American Adventures
    1F 1981/1981** Les Pièges de la mer Cries from the Deep No
    2F 1982 Du grand large aux grands lac Saint Lawrence: Stairway to the Sea Yes
    7. Cousteau's Amazon Series
    1S 1982 Calypso Countdown: Rigging for the Amazon Yes
    2 1983/1984 Au pays des milles rivières Journey to a Thousand Rivers Yes
    3 1983/1984 La rivière enchantée The Enchanted River Yes
    4 1983/1984 Ombres fuyantes — Indiens de l’Amazonie Shadows in the Wilderness — Indians of the Amazon Yes
    5 1983/1984 La rivière de l’or River of Gold Yes
    6 1984 Message d’un monde perdu Legacy of a Lost World Yes
    7 1984 Un avenir pour l’Amazonie Blueprints for Amazonia Yes
    8 1984/1985 Tempête de neige sur la jungle Snowstorm in the Jungle Yes
    8. Other releases I
    1 1985 Le Mississippi. Partie I. Un Allié récalcitrant Cousteau at Mississippi. The Reluctant Ally Yes
    2 1985 Le Mississippi. Partie II. Allié et adversaire Cousteau at Mississippi. The Friendly Foe Yes
    3 1985 Jacques-Yves Cousteau: mes premier 75 ans (1) Jacques Cousteau: The First 75 Years (1) No
    4 1985 Jacques-Yves Cousteau: mes premier 75 ans (2) Jacques Cousteau: The First 75 Years (2) No
    5 1985/1986 Alcyone, fille du vent Riders of the Wind Yes
    1988 Island of Peace Yes
    9. Cousteau's Rediscovery of the World I
    1 1986 Haïti: L’eau de chagrin Haiti: Waters of Sorrow Yes
    2 1986 Cuba: les eaux du destin Cuba: Waters of Destiny Yes
    3 1986 Cap Horn: les eaux du vent Cape Horn: Waters of the Wind Yes
    4 1986/1987 L’héritage de Cortez Sea of Cortez: Legacy of Cortez Yes
    5 1987 Les Îles Marquises: montagnes de la mer Marquesas islands: Mountains from the Sea Yes
    6 1987 Îles du Détroit: les eaux de la discorde Channel Islands: Waters of Contention Yes
    7 1987 Îles du Détroit: à l’approche d’une marée humaine Channel Islands: Days of Future Past Yes
    8 1988 Nouvelle-Zélande: la Rose et le dragon New Zealand: The Rose and the Dragon Yes
    9 1988 Nouvelle-Zélande: au pays du long nuage blanc New Zealand: The Heron of the Single Flight Yes
    10 1988 Au pays des totems vivants Pacific Northwest: Land of the Living Totems Yes
    11 1988 Tahiti: l’eau de feu Tahiti: Fire Waters Yes
    12 1988/1989 Les Requins de l'île au trésor Cocos Island: Sharks of Treasure Island Yes
    13 1988/1989 Mer de Béring: Le crépuscule du chasseur en Alaska Bering Sea: Twilight of the Alaskan Hunter Yes
    14 1988/1989 New Zealand: The Smoldering Sea Yes
    15 1988/1989 Australie: l’ultime barrière Australia: The Last Barrier Yes
    16 1989 Bornéo: Le spectre de la tortue Borneo: The Ghost of the Sea Turtle Yes
    17 1989/1990 Papouasie Nouvelle-Guinée I: La machine à remonter le temps Papua New Guinea I: Into the Time Machine Yes
    18 1989/1990 Papouasie Nouvelle-Guinée II: La rivière des hommes crocodiles Papua New Guinea II: River of Crocodile Men Yes
    19 1989/1990 Papouasie Nouvelle-Guinée III: La coeur de feu Papua New Guinea III: Center of Fire Yes
    20 1989/1990 Thaïlande: les forçats de la mer Thailand: Convicts of the Sea Yes
    21 1989/1990 Bornéo: la Forêt sans terre Borneo: Forests Without Land Yes
    22 1990 Andaman, les îles invisibles Andaman Islands: Invisible Islands Yes
    10. Other releases II
    7 1990 Scandale à Valdez Outrage at Valdez No
    8 1990 Lilliput en Antarctique Lilliput in Antarctica Yes
    11. Cousteau's Rediscovery of the World II
    23 1990 Australie: à l’ouest du bout du monde Australia: Out West, Down Under Yes
    24 1991 Australie: le peuple de la mer desséchée Australia: People of the Dry Sea Yes
    25 1991 Australie: le peuple de l’eau et du feu Australia: People of Fire and Water Yes
    26 1991 Australie: les trésors de la mer Australia: Fortunes in the Sea Yes
    27 1991 Tasmanie, une île s'éveille Tasmania: Australia’s Awakening Island Yes
    28 1991/1992 Indonésie: les vergers de l’enfer Indonesia I: The Devil’s Orchard Yes
    29 1991/1992 Sumatra: le cœur de la mer Indonesia II: Sumatra, the Heart of the Sea Yes
    30 1991/1992 Nauru, îlot ou planète Nauru: The Island Planet Yes
    31 1991/1992 The Mirage of the Sea N/A
    32 1991/1992 La grand requin blanc, seigneur solitaire des mers The Great White Shark — Lonely Lord of the Sea No
    33 1991/1992 Palawan, le dernier refuge Palawan: The Last Refuge Yes
    34 1992/1993 Danube I: le lever de rideau Danube I: The Curtain Rises Yes
    35 1992/1993 Danube II: le rêve de Charlemagne Danube II: Charlemagne’s Dream Yes
    36 1992/1993 Danube III: les débordements du fleuve Danube III: Cries of the River Yes
    37 1992/1993 Danube IV: les Débordements du Fleuve Danube IV: Rivalries Overflow Yes
    38 1993 La société secrète des Cétacés Bahamas: The Secret Societies of Dolphins and Whales No
    39 1993/1994 Mékong: le don de l’eau Mekong: The Gift of Water No
    40 1993/1994 Vietnam et Cambodge: le riz et les fusils Vietnam and Cambodia: Children of Rice and Guns No
    12. Other releases III
    9 1995 Calypso’s Legend Yes
    10 1995 Deeper, Farther, Longer Yes
    11* 1996 Les promisses de la mer Yes
    13. Cousteau's Rediscovery of the World III
    41 1995 Madagascar I: l'île des esprits Madagascar I: The Island Bleeds Yes
    42 1995 Madagascar II: l'île des esprits Madagascar II: Madagascar, Island of Spirits Yes
    43 1996 Afrique du Sud: les diamants du désert South Africa: Diamonds of the Desert Yes
    44 1996 Afrique du Sud: sanctuaires pour la vie South Africa: Sanctuaries for Life Yes
    45 1996/1997 À travers la Chine par le fleuve Jaune China: Across China with the Yellow River Yes
    46 1997/1999 Le lac Baïkal Lake Baikal: Beneath the Mirror Yes

    Notes

    • S = short-length film;
    • F = full-length film;
    • other films have length 45 minutes;
    • * = the film doesn't exist on official filmography;
    • ** = the film's year is greater by one than on official filmography.

    Bibliography

    Books by Cousteau

    • The Silent World (1953, with Frédéric Dumas)
    • Captain Cousteaus Underwater Treasury (1959, with James Dugan)
    • The Living Sea (1963, with James Dugan)
    • World Without Sun (1965)
    • The Undersea Discoveries of Jacques-Yves Cousteau (1970–1975, 8-volumes, with Philippe Diolé)
      • The Shark: Splendid Savage of the Sea (1970)
      • Diving for Sunken Treasure (1971)
      • Life and Death in a Coral Sea (1971)
      • The Whale: Mighty Monarch of the Sea (1972)
      • Octopus and Squid: The Soft Intelligence (1973)
      • Three Adventures: Galápagos, Titicaca, the Blue Holes (1973)
      • Diving Companions: Sea Lion, Elephant Seal, Walrus (1974)
      • Dolphins (1975)
    • The Ocean World of Jacques Cousteau (1973–78, 21 volumes)
      • Oasis in Space (vol 1)
      • The Act of Life (vol 2)
      • Quest for Food (vol 3)
      • Window in the Sea (vol 4)
      • The Art of Motion (vol 5)
      • Attack and Defense (vol 6)
      • Invisible Messages (vol 7)
      • Instinct and Intelligence (vol 8)
      • Pharaohs of the Sea (vol 9)
      • Mammals in the Sea (vol 10)
      • Provinces of the Sea (vol 11)
      • Man Re-Enters Sea (vol 12)
      • A Sea of Legends (vol 13)
      • Adventure of Life (vol 14)
      • Outer and Inner Space (vol 15)
      • The Whitecaps (vol 16)
      • Riches of the Sea (vol 17)
      • Challenges of the Sea (vol 18)
      • The Sea in Danger (vol 19)
      • Guide to the Sea and Index (vol 20)
      • Calypso (1978, vol 21)
    • A Bill of Rights for Future Generations (1979)
    • Life at the Bottom of the World (1980)
    • The Cousteau United States Almanac of the Environment (1981, a.k.a. The Cousteau Almanac of the Environment: An Inventory of Life on a Water Planet)
    • Jacques Cousteau's Calypso (1983)
    • Marine Life of the Caribbean (1984, with James Cribb and Thomas H. Suchanek)
    • Jacques Cousteau's Amazon Journey (1984, with )
    • Jacques Cousteau: The Ocean World (1985)
    • The Whale (1987, with Philippe Diolé)
    • Jacques Cousteau: Whales (1988, with )
    • The Human, The Orchid and The Octopus (and Susan Schiefelbein, coauthor; Bloomsbury 2007)

    Books about Cousteau

    • Undersea Explorer: The Story of Captain Cousteau (1957) by James Dugan
    • Jacques Cousteau and the Undersea World (2000) by Roger King
    • Jacques-Yves Cousteau: His Story Under the Sea (2002) by
    • Jacques Cousteau: A Life Under the Sea (2008) by
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