Homeomorphism
In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism or topological isomorphism or bi continuous function is a continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomorphisms in the category of topological spaces—that is, they are the mappings that preserve all the topological properties of a given space. Two spaces with a homeomorphism between them are called homeomorphic, and from a topological viewpoint they are the same. The word homeomorphism comes from the Greek words ὅμοιος (homoios) = similar and μορφή (morphē) = shape, form.^{}
Roughly speaking, a topological space is a geometric object, and the homeomorphism is a continuous stretching and bending of the object into a new shape. Thus, a square and a circle are homeomorphic to each other, but a sphere and a torus are not. An oftenrepeated mathematical joke is that topologists can't tell the difference between a coffee cup and a donut,^{} since a sufficiently pliable donut could be reshaped to the form of a coffee cup by creating a dimple and progressively enlarging it, while preserving the donut hole in a cup's handle.
Topology is the study of those properties of objects that do not change when homeomorphisms are applied.
Definition
A function f: X → Y between two topological spaces (X, T_{X}) and (Y, T_{Y}) is called a homeomorphism if it has the following properties:
 f is a bijection (onetoone and onto),
 f is continuous,
 the inverse function f ^{−1} is continuous (f is an open mapping).
A function with these three properties is sometimes called bicontinuous. If such a function exists, we say X and Y are homeomorphic. A selfhomeomorphism is a homeomorphism of a topological space and itself. The homeomorphisms form an equivalence relation on the class of all topological spaces. The resulting equivalence classes are called homeomorphism classes.
Examples
 The unit 2disc D^{2} and the unit square in R^{2} are homeomorphic.^{[clarification needed]}
 The open interval (a, b) is homeomorphic to the real numbers R for any a < b. (In this case, a bicontinuous forward mapping is given by f(x) = 1/(x − a) + 1/(x − b) while another such mapping is given by a scaled and translated version of the tan function).
 The product space S^{1} × S^{1} and the twodimensional torus are homeomorphic.^{[clarification needed]}
 Every uniform isomorphism and isometric isomorphism is a homeomorphism.
 The stereographic projection is a homeomorphism between the unit sphere in R^{3} with a single point removed and the set of all points in R^{2} (a 2dimensional plane).
 If A is a commutative ring with unity, and S is a multiplicative subset of A, then the spectrum Spec(A_{S}) is homeomorphic to {p ∈ Spec(A) : p ∩ S = ∅}.
 If G is a topological group, its inversion map is a homeomorphism. Also, for any , the left translation , the right translation , and the inner automorphism are homeomorphisms.
Nonexamples
 R^{m} and R^{n} are not homeomorphic for m ≠ n.
 The Euclidean real line is not homeomorphic to the unit circle as a subspace of R^{2}, since the unit circle is compact as a subspace of Euclidean R^{2} but the real line is not compact.
Notes
The third requirement, that f ^{−1} be continuous, is essential. Consider for instance the function f: [0, 2π) → S^{1} (the unit circle in ) defined by f(φ) = (cos(φ), sin(φ)). This function is bijective and continuous, but not a homeomorphism (S^{1} is compact but [0, 2π) is not). The function f ^{−1} is not continuous at the point (1, 0), because although f ^{−1} maps (1, 0) to 0, any neighbourhood of this point also includes points that the function maps close to 2π, but the points it maps to numbers in between lie outside the neighbourhood.^{}
Homeomorphisms are the isomorphisms in the category of topological spaces. As such, the composition of two homeomorphisms is again a homeomorphism, and the set of all selfhomeomorphisms X → X forms a group, called the homeomorphism group of X, often denoted Homeo(X); this group can be given a topology, such as the compactopen topology, making it a topological group.
For some purposes, the homeomorphism group happens to be too big, but by means of the isotopy relation, one can reduce this group to the mapping class group.
Similarly, as usual in category theory, given two spaces that are homeomorphic, the space of homeomorphisms between them, Homeo(X, Y), is a torsor for the homeomorphism groups Homeo(X) and Homeo(Y), and given a specific homeomorphism between X and Y, all three sets are identified.
Properties
 Two homeomorphic spaces share the same topological properties. For example, if one of them is compact, then the other is as well; if one of them is connected, then the other is as well; if one of them is Hausdorff, then the other is as well; their homotopy & homology groups will coincide. Note however that this does not extend to properties defined via a metric; there are metric spaces that are homeomorphic even though one of them is complete and the other is not.
 A homeomorphism is simultaneously an open mapping and a closed mapping; that is, it maps open sets to open sets and closed sets to closed sets.
 Every selfhomeomorphism in can be extended to a selfhomeomorphism of the whole disk (Alexander's trick).
Informal discussion
The intuitive criterion of stretching, bending, cutting and gluing back together takes a certain amount of practice to apply correctly—it may not be obvious from the description above that deforming a line segment to a point is impermissible, for instance. It is thus important to realize that it is the formal definition given above that counts.
This characterization of a homeomorphism often leads to confusion with the concept of homotopy, which is actually defined as a continuous deformation, but from one function to another, rather than one space to another. In the case of a homeomorphism, envisioning a continuous deformation is a mental tool for keeping track of which points on space X correspond to which points on Y—one just follows them as X deforms. In the case of homotopy, the continuous deformation from one map to the other is of the essence, and it is also less restrictive, since none of the maps involved need to be onetoone or onto. Homotopy does lead to a relation on spaces: homotopy equivalence.
There is a name for the kind of deformation involved in visualizing a homeomorphism. It is (except when cutting and regluing are required) an isotopy between the identity map on X and the homeomorphism from X to Y.
See also
 Local homeomorphism
 Diffeomorphism
 Uniform isomorphism is an isomorphism between uniform spaces
 Isometric isomorphism is an isomorphism between metric spaces
 Dehn twist
 Homeomorphism (graph theory) (closely related to graph subdivision)
 Homotopy#Isotopy
 Mapping class group
 Poincaré conjecture
References
External links
 Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001), "Homeomorphism", Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer, ISBN 9781556080104
 Homeomorphism at PlanetMath.org.
