Exclusive economic zone

Sea areas in international rights

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind. It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.

    Definition

    The World's EEZs, shown in dark blue

    Generally, a state's EEZ is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary. Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.

    A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370.4 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea). Thus, the EEZ includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nautical miles (648 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the EEZ, but such areas are not part of their EEZ. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the EEZ.

    Origin

    The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

    Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nautical miles or 6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nautical miles (~22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States of America in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).

    It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted as:

    Part V, Article 55 of the Convention states:

    Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone
    The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.

    Disputes

    Baselines and EEZ claims in East and Southeast Asia showing the amount of overlap in the disputed South China Sea (the Spratly Islands in particular)

    The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.

    • One well-known example of such dispute was the Cod Wars between the United Kingdom and Iceland.
    • Norway and Russia dispute both territorial sea and EEZ with regard to the Svalbard archipelago as it affects Russia's EEZ due to its unique treaty status. A treaty was agreed in principle in April 2010 between the two states and subsequently ratified, resolving this demarcation dispute. The agreement was signed in Murmansk on September 15, 2010.
    • The South China Sea (and the Spratly Islands) is the site of an ongoing dispute between several neighboring nations.
    • Croatia's ZERP (Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone) in the Adriatic Sea caused friction with Italy and Slovenia, and caused problems during Croatia's accession to the European Union.
    • A wedge-shaped section of the Beaufort Sea is disputed between Canada and the United States, as the area reportedly contains substantial oil reserves.
    • France claims a portion of Canada's EEZ for Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon based on a new definition of the continental shelf and EEZ between the two countries. Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon is entirely surrounded by Canada's EEZ.
    • Mauritius claims EEZ for Tromelin from France and EEZ for British Indian Ocean Territory from the UK.
    • Northern Cyprus claims a portion of Cyprus' EEZ overlaps with that of Northern Cyprus in the south/southeastern part of the Cyprus island.
    • Cyprus claims a portion of Turkey's EEZ overlaps with its own EEZ.
    • Lebanon claims that the agreement between Cyprus and Israel overlapped its own EEZ.

    Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.

    Transboundary stocks

    Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control. Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.

    Exclusive economic zone by country

    Argentina

    Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims

    Australia

    Australia's exclusive economic zones
    • Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973

    Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind the United States and France, but ahead of Russia, with the total area actually exceeding that of its land territory. Per the UN convention, Australia's EEZ generally extends 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.

    The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ. Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory, but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.

    EEZ Area (km2)
    Heard and McDonald Islands 410,722
     Christmas Island 463,371
     Cocos Islands 325,021
     Norfolk Island 428,618
    Macquarie Island 471,837
    Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands 6,048,681
    Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000
    Total 10,148,250

    Brazil

    Brazil's exclusive economic zones

    Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands.

    EEZ Area (km2)
    Mainland 2 400 917
    Fernando de Noronha 363 362
    St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413 636
    Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468 599
    Total 3 646 514

    In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.

    Canada

    Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters

    Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 2,755,564 km2, is slightly smaller than its territorial waters. The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.

    Chile

    Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim

    Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

    Region EEZ Area (km2) Land area Total
    Mainland 1 975 760 755 757 2 731 517
    Desventuradas 449 836
    Easter 720 412 164 720 576
    Juan Fernandez 502 524
    Total 3 648 532 755 921 4 404 453

    There is a dispute with Peru over the extent of Chile's EEZ: Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute

    China

    People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:
      China's EEZ
    877,019 km2
      EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan
      EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others
    3,000,000 km2 Total:3,877,019

    The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

    Cyprus

    Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia

    The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country. Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.

    Denmark

    The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

    The Kingdom of Denmark includes the autonomous province (selvstyre) of Greenland and the self-governing (hjemmestyre) province of the Faroe Islands. The EEZs of the latter two do not form part of the EEZ of the European Union.

    Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
     Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
     Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
     Greenland 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340
    Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817

    European Union

    EEZ of the European Union as a single entity.
             EU member states.
             Territories under the sovereignty of an EU member state.
             Recognised candidate countries.

    France

    Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim

    Due to its numerous Overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,900 km2 (4,514,000 mi2), just ahead of the EEZ of the United States (11,351,000 km2 / 4,382,000 mi2). The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.

    Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
     Metropolitan France 334 604 551 695 886 299
     French Guiana 133 949 83 846 217 795
     Guadeloupe 95 978 1 628 97 606
     Martinique 47 640 1 128 48 768
     Réunion 315 058 2 512 317 570
     French Polynesia 4 767 242 4 167 4 771 409
     Saint Pierre and Miquelon 12 334 242 12 576
     Mayotte 63 078 376 63 454
     Wallis and Futuna 258 269 264 258 533
     Saint-Martin 1 000 53 1 053
     Saint-Barthélemy 4 000 21 4 021
     New Caledonia 1 422 543 18 575 1 441 118
     Clipperton Island 431 263 6 431 269
    Crozet Islands 574 558 352 574 910
    Kerguelen Islands 567 732 7 215 574 947
    Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands 509 015 66 509 081
    Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean 352 117 44 352 161
    Tromelin Island 270 455 1 270 456
    Total 11 035 000 675 417 11 710 417

    Note, the EEZ (and territorial seas) column only adds up to 10,155,838 square km. All but the two smallest (Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthélemy) components of France's EEZ/territorial seas match those at http://www.seaaroundus.org/eez/, which would be a better reference than the reference given—which only provides EEZ sizes for Australia.

    Greece

    Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.

    According to published maps, the Israeli government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company. "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".

    India

    India's exclusive economic zones
    • 1,641,514 km2
    • Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 663,629 km2
    • Total: 2,305,143 km2

    India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.

    Israel

    In 2010, an EEZ was set within the territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime half way point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.

    Japan

    Japan's exclusive economic zones:
      Japan's EEZ
      Joint regime with Republic of Korea
      EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others

    Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan. The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

    Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" - Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or , Ocean Going Area - but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.

    Mexico

    Exclusive economic zone of Mexico

    Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.

    New Zealand

    Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded)

    New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2, which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2. These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

    Northern Cyprus

    The EEZ border between Northern Cyprus and Turkey

    On 21 September 2011, Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) signed an EEZ border agreement in New York. Turkey is the only country that recognizes the TRNC, see Cyprus dispute.

    Norway

    Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island

    Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen . The fact that the European Union shares its economic zones was a big reason why Norway did not enter the EU as a member.[]

    In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.

    Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
    Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284
    Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576
    Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491
    Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053
    Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404

    Pakistan

    350 nautical miles;km2

    Philippines

    The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue

    The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,265,684 (135,783) km2

    Poland

    The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 within the Baltic Sea.

    Portugal

    Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN

    Portugal has the 10th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

    Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009, resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

    Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf, citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

    Russia

    Russia's exclusive economic zone
    • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) - 11,634
    • St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) - 12,759
    • Barents Sea - 1,308,140
    • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) - 66,854
    • Pacific - 3,419,202
    • Siberia - 3,277,292
    • Total - 8,095,881  km2

    Somalia

    Somalia's exclusive economic zone
    • 825,052 km2

    South Africa

    South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone

    South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1 535 538 km2.

    • Mainland 1 068 659 km2
    • Prince Edward islands 466 879 km2

    Republic of Korea (South Korea)

    South Korean exclusive economic zone:
      Korean EEZ
      EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea, disputed by Japan
      Joint regime with Japan

    Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

    United Kingdom

    The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.

    The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory. The exclusive economic zones associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina.

    Only the United Kingdom and Gibraltar are part of the EU. The Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU. The United Kingdom has not as yet claimed its rights with regards to Gibraltar or the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus.

    Areas of EEZs of the UK, crown dependencies and overseas territories
    Territory km2 sq mi Notes
    United Kingdom 773,676 298,718 includes Rockall and the Isle of Man
    Anguilla 92,178 35,590
    Ascension Island 441,658 170,525
    Bermuda 450,370 173,890
    British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 disputed with Mauritius
    British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933
    Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999
    Channel Islands 11,658 4,501
    Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 disputed with Argentina
    Gibraltar 426 164 disputed with Spain
    Montserrat 7,582 2,927
    Pitcairn Island 836,108 322,823
    Saint Helena 444,916 171,783
    South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 disputed with Argentina
    Tristan da Cunha archipelago† 754,720 291,400
    Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486
    Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

    †Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

    United States

    Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas

    The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, right behind France, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

    • Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976

    The sizes of the components of the US EEZ/territorial seas are (in decreasing size):

    • Alaska - 3,770,021 km2 (1,455,613 sq mi)
    • Hawaii - Northwest Islands - 1,579,538 km2 (609,863 sq mi)
    • U.S. East Coast - 915,763 km2 (353,578 sq mi)
    • Hawaii - Main Islands - 895,346 km2 (345,695 sq mi)
    • U.S. West Coast - 825,549 km2 (318,746 sq mi)
    • Northern Marianas - 749,268 km2 (289,294 sq mi)
    • Mainland Gulf Coast - 707,832 km2 (273,295 sq mi)
    • Johnston Atoll - 442,635 km2 (170,902 sq mi)
    • Howland and Baker Islands - 434,921 km2 (167,924 sq mi)
    • Wake Island - 407,241 km2 (157,237 sq mi)
    • American Samoa - 404,391 km2 (156,136 sq mi)
    • Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef - 352,300 km2 (136,000 sq mi)
    • Jarvis Island - 316,665 km2 (122,265 sq mi)
    • Guam - 221,504 km2 (85,523 sq mi)
    • Puerto Rico - 177,685 km2 (68,605 sq mi)
    • U.S. Virgin Islands - 33,744 km2 (13,029 sq mi)

    Total: 12,234,403 km2 (4,723,729 sq mi)

    Rankings by area

    This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA).

    Country EEZ km2 Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
     France 11,691,900 389,422 12,312,624
     United States 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306
     Australia 8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464
     Russia 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
     United Kingdom 6,805,586 722,891 7,048,486
     Indonesia 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,063,601
     Canada 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077
     Japan 4,479,388 454,976 4,857,318
     New Zealand 4,083,744 277,610 4,352,424
     Chile 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381
     Brazil 3,660,955 774,563 12,175,832
     Kiribati 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
     Mexico 3,269,386 419,102 5,141,968
     Federated States of Micronesia 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
     Denmark 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
     Papua New Guinea 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
     Norway 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
     India 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
     Marshall Islands 1,990,530 18,411 2,008,941
     Portugal 1,727,408 92,090 3,969,498
     Philippines 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
     Solomon Islands 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
     South Africa 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
     Seychelles 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
     Mauritius 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
     Fiji 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
     Madagascar 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
     Argentina 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463
     Ecuador 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
     Spain 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
     Maldives 923,322 34,538 923,622
     Peru 906,454 82,000 2,191,670
     China 877,019 231,340 1,108,359
     Somalia 825,052 55,895 1,462,709
     Colombia 808,158 53,691 1,949,906
     Cape Verde 800,561 5,591 804,594
     Iceland 751,345 108,015 854,345
     Tuvalu 749,790 3,575 749,816
     Vanuatu 663,251 11,483 675,440
     Tonga 659,558 8,517 660,305
     Bahamas 654,715 106,323 668,658
     Palau 603,978 2,837 604,437
     Mozambique 578,986 94,212 1,380,576
     Morocco 575,230 115,157 1,287,780
     Costa Rica 574,725 19,585 625,825
     Namibia 564,748 86,698 1,388,864
     Yemen 552,669 59,229 1,080,637
     Italy 541,915 116,834 843,251
     Oman 533,180 59,071 842,680
     Myanmar 532,775 220,332 1,209,353
     Sri Lanka 532,619 32,453 598,229
     Angola 518,433 48,092 1,765,133
     Greece 505,572 81,451 637,529
     South Korea 475,469 292,522 575,469
     Venezuela 471,507 98,500 1,387,950
     Vietnam 417,663 365,198 748,875
     Ireland 410,310 139,935 480,583
     Libya 351,589 64,763 2,111,129
     Cuba 350,751 61,525 460,637
     Panama 335,646 53,404 411,163
     Malaysia 334,671 323,412 665,474
     Nauru 308,480 41 308,501
     Equatorial Guinea 303,509 7,820 331,560
     Thailand 299,397 230,063 812,517
     Egypt 263,451 61,591 1,265,451
     Turkey 261,654 56,093 1,045,216
     Jamaica 258,137 9,802 269,128
     Dominican Republic 255,898 10,738 304,569
     Liberia 249,734 17,715 361,103
     Honduras 249,542 68,718 362,034
     Tanzania 241,888 25,611 1,186,975
     Pakistan 235,999 51,383 1,117,911
     Ghana 235,349 22,502 473,888
     Saudi Arabia 228,633 107,249 2,378,323
     Nigeria 217,313 42,285 1,141,081
     Sierra Leone 215,611 28,625 287,351
     Gabon 202,790 35,020 470,458
     Barbados 186,898 426 187,328
     Côte d'Ivoire 176,254 10,175 498,717
     Iran 168,718 118,693 1,797,468
     Mauritania 165,338 31,662 1,190,858
     Comoros 163,752 1,526 165,987
     Sweden 160,885 154,604 602,255
     Senegal 158,861 23,092 355,583
     Netherlands 154,011 77,246 192,345
     Ukraine 147,318 79,142 750,818
     Uruguay 142,166 75,327 318,381
     Guyana 137,765 50,578 352,734
     North Korea 132,826 54,566 253,364
     São Tomé and Príncipe 131,397 1,902 132,361
     Samoa 127,950 2,087 130,781
     Suriname 127,772 53,631 291,592
     Haiti 126,760 6,683 154,510
     Algeria 126,353 9,985 2,508,094
     Nicaragua 123,881 70,874 254,254
     Guinea-Bissau 123,725 39,339 159,850
     Kenya 116,942 11,073 697,309
     Guatemala 114,170 14,422 223,059
     Antigua and Barbuda 110,089 4,128 110,531
     Tunisia 101,857 67,126 265,467
     Cyprus 98,707 4,042 107,958
     El Salvador 90,962 16,852 112,003
     Finland 87,171 85,109 425,590
     Bangladesh 86,392 66,438 230,390
     Taiwan 83,231 43,016 119,419
     Eritrea 77,728 61,817 195,328
     Trinidad and Tobago 74,199 25,284 79,329
     East Timor 70,326 25,648 85,200
     Sudan 68,148 19,827 1,954,216
     Cambodia 62,515 62,515 243,550
     Guinea 59,426 44,755 305,283
     Croatia 59,032 50,277 115,626
     United Arab Emirates 58,218 57,474 141,818
     Germany 57,485 57,485 414,599
     Malta 54,823 5,301 55,139
     Estonia 36,992 36,992 82,219
     Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,302 1,561 36,691
     Belize 35,351 13,178 58,317
     Bulgaria 34,307 10,426 145,186
     Benin 33,221 2,721 145,843
     Qatar 31,590 31,590 43,176
     Congo, Republic of the 31,017 7,982 373,017
     Poland 29,797 29,797 342,482
     Dominica 28,985 659 29,736
     Latvia 28,452 27,772 93,011
     Grenada 27,426 2,237 27,770
     Israel 26,352 3,745 48,424
     Romania 23,627 19,303 262,018
     The Gambia 23,112 5,581 34,407
     Georgia 21,946 3,243 91,646
     Lebanon 19,516 1,067 29,968
     Cameroon 16,547 11,420 491,989
     Saint Lucia 15,617 544 16,156
     Albania 13,691 6,979 42,439
     Togo 12,045 1,265 68,830
     Kuwait 11,026 11,026 28,844
     Syria 10,503 1,085 195,683
     Bahrain 10,225 10,225 10,975
     Brunei 10,090 8,509 15,855
     Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,974 653 10,235
     Montenegro 7,745 3,896 21,557
     Djibouti 7,459 3,187 30,659
     Lithuania 7,031 7,031 72,331
     Belgium 3,447 3,447 33,975
     Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,606 1,593 2,346,464
     Singapore 1,067 1,067 1,772
     Iraq 771 771 439,088
     Monaco 288 2 290
     Palestine 256 256 6,276
     Slovenia 220 220 20,493
     Jordan 166 59 89,508
     Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 50 51,259
     Kazakhstan 2,724,900
     Mongolia 1,564,100
     Chad 1,284,000
     Niger 1,267,000
     Mali 1,240,192
     Ethiopia 1,104,300
     Bolivia 1,098,581
     Zambia 752,612
     Afghanistan 652,090
     Central African Republic 622,984
     South Sudan 619,745
     Botswana 582,000
     Turkmenistan 488,100
     Uzbekistan 447,400
     Paraguay 406,752
     Zimbabwe 390,757
     Burkina Faso 274,222
     Uganda 241,038
     Laos 236,800
     Belarus 207,600
     Kyrgyzstan 199,951
       Nepal 147,181
     Tajikistan 143,100
     Malawi 118,484
     Hungary 93,028
     Azerbaijan 86,600
     Austria 83,871
     Czech Republic 78,867
     Serbia 77,474
     Slovakia 49,035
      Switzerland 41,284
     Bhutan 38,394
     Moldova 33,846
     Lesotho 30,355
     Armenia 29,743
     Burundi 27,834
     Rwanda 26,338
     Republic of Macedonia 25,713
     Swaziland 17,364
     Kosovo 10,887
     Luxembourg 2,586
     Andorra 468
     Liechtenstein 160
     San Marino 61
      Vatican City 0.44

    See also

    Notes and references

    Notes:

    a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognised as an independent state by 108 out of 193 United Nations member states.

    External links

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