Blackshirts

This article is about the Italian Fascist paramilitary. For other uses, see Blackshirts (disambiguation).

The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Italian: Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy. Its members were distinguished by their black uniforms (modelled on those of the Arditi, Italy's elite troops of World War I) and their loyalty to Benito Mussolini, the Duce (leader) of Fascism, to whom they swore an oath. The founders of the paramilitary groups were nationalist intellectuals, former army officers and young landowners opposing peasants' and country labourers' unions. Their methods became harsher as Mussolini's power grew, and they used violence and intimidation against Mussolini's opponents. In 1943 the MVSN was integrated into the Italian armed forces.

    History

    The Blackshirts were established as the squadristi in 1919 and consisted of many disgruntled former soldiers. It was given the task of leading fights against their bitter enemies – the Socialists. They may have numbered 200,000 by the time of Mussolini's March on Rome from 27 to 29 October 1922. In 1922 the squadristi were reorganized into the milizia and formed numerous bandiere, and on 1 February 1923 the Blackshirts became the Volunteer Militia for National Security (Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, or MVSN), which lasted until the 8 September 1943 Armistice of Cassibile. The Italian Social Republic, located in the areas of northern Italy occupied by Germany, reformed the MVSN on 8 December 1943 into the Republican National Guard (Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana, or GNR).

    Organization

    Benito Mussolini was the leader, or Commandant-General, of the blackshirts, but executive functions were carried out by the Chief of Staff, equivalent to an army general. The MVSN was formed in imitation of the ancient Roman army, as follows:

    Basic organization

    The terms after the first are not words common to European armies (e.g., the Italian battaglione has cognates in many languages). Instead, they derive from the structure of the armies of ancient Rome.

    These units were also organized on the triangular principle as follows:

    • 3 squadre = 1 manipolo (maniple)
    • 3 manipoli = 1 centuria (centuria)
    • 3 centuriae = 1 coorte (cohort)
    • 3 coorti = 1 legione (legion)
    • 3 legioni = 1 divisioni (field division)
    • 3 or more legioni = 1 zona (zone - an administrative division)

    Territorial organization

    The MVSN original organization consisted of 15 zones controlling 133 legions (one per province) of three cohorts each and one Independent Group controlling 10 legions. In 1929 it was reorganized into four raggruppamenti, but later in October 1936 it was reorganized into 14 zones controlling only 133 legions with two cohorts each, one of men 21 to 36 years old and the other of men up to 55 years old, plus special units in Rome, on Ponza Island and the black uniformed ("The Leader's Musketeers", Mussolini's Guard) and the Albanian Militia (four legions) and Milizia Coloniale in Africa (seven legions).

    Security militia

    Special militias were also organized to provide security police and gendarmerie functions, these included:

    Ethiopian Campaign

    Blackshirts in Ethiopian campaign

    During the 1935-36 Abyssinian Campaign seven CCNN Divisions were organized:

    • 1st (23rd of March) CCNN Division
    • 2nd (28th of October) CCNN Division
    • 3rd (21 April) CCNN Division
    • 4th (3 January) CCNN Division
    • 5th (1 February) CCNN Division
    • 6th (Tevere) CCNN Division

    The first six Divisions were sent to Ethiopia and participated in the war.

    • 7th (Cirene) CCNN Division - The 7th CCNN Division "Cirene" was never deployed overseas or even fully equipped before it was disbanded.

    Blackshirt Division organization

    Organization of Blackshirt Divisions (3 October 1935)

    • Divisional HQ
    • 3 x Legions each with:
      • 1 Legionary Machine Gun Company with 16 machine guns
      • 2 Legionary Infantry Battalions, each with:
        • 1 Machine Gun Company with 8x8mm Breda machine guns and
        • 3 Infantry Companies each with 9 light machine guns and 3x45mm mortars
        • 1 pack-artillery battery with 4x65mm L17 each.
    • 1 x Artillery Battalion (Army) with 3 batteries (65/17)
    • 1 x Engineers company (mixed Army and Blackshirts)
    • 2 x Replacements Battalions (1 Infantry, 1 Mixed)
    • 1 x Medical Section
    • 1 x Logistics Section (food)
    • 1 x Pack-Mules unit (1600 mules)
    • 1 x Mixed Trucks unit (80 light trucks)

    The Blackshirts Rifle Battalions had three rifle companies but no MMG company. The rifle companies had three platoons (three squads with one LMG each). Each Legion had a MMG company with four platoons of three weapons each (plus two spare ones). The Blackshirts replacements battalions were organized as the Blackshirts Rifle Battalions, but its platoon were overstrength (60 men each) and with only 1 x LMG in each platoon.

    Organization of Blackshirt Divisions (10 June 1940)

    • Division Command
    • 2 Black Shirt Legions - each
      • 3 Battalions
      • 1 81mm Mortar Company
      • 1 Accompanying Battery 65mm/17 Mtn guns
    • 1 Machine Gun Battalion
    • 1 Artillery Regiment:
      • 2 Artillery Groups
      • 1 Artillery Group
      • 2 AA Batteries 20mm
    • 1 Mixed Engineering Battalion
      • 1 Ambulance Section Sanita
      • 3 Field Hospitals (Planned when available)
      • 1 Supply Section
    • 1 Section Mixed Transport

    Commandant-General

    Spanish Civil War

    Three CCNN Divisions were sent to participate in the Spanish Civil War as part of the Corpo Truppe Volontarie. The Blackshirt (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) Divisions contained regular soldiers and volunteer militia from the Fascist Party. The CCNN divisions were semi-motorised.

    • 1st CCNN Division "Dio lo Vuole" ("God Wills it")
    • 2nd CCNN Division "Fiamme Nere" ("Black Flames")
    • 3rd CCNN Division "Penne Nere" ("Black Feathers")

    The 3rd CCNN Division was disbanded and consolidated with the 2nd CCNN Division in April 1937 after their defeat at Guadalajara. After the campaigns in Northern Spain in October 1937, the 2nd CCNN Division was consolidated with the 1st CCNN and renamed the XXIII de Marzo Division "Llamas Negras".

    World War II

    Blackshirts during Operation Barbarossa

    In 1940 the MVSN was able to muster 340,000 first-line combat troops, providing three divisions (1st, 2nd and 4th - all three of which were lost in the North African Campaign) and, later in 1942, a fourth division ("M") and fifth division Africa were forming.

    Mussolini also pushed through plans to raise 142 MVSN combat battalions of 650 men each to provide a Gruppo di Assalto to each army division. These Gruppi consisted of two cohorts (each of three centuriae of 3 manipoli of 2 squadre each) plus Gruppo Supporto company of two heavy machine gun manipoli (with three HMG each) and two 81 mm mortar manipoli (with 3 Mortars each).

    Later 41 Mobile groups were raised to become the third regiment in Italian Army divisions as it was determined through operational experience that the Italian arm's binary divisions were too small in both manpower and heavy equipment. These mobile groups suffered heavy casualties due to being undermanned, under equipped and under trained. The three divisions were destroyed in combat in North Africa. The MVSN fought in every theater where Italy did.

    Ranks

    With translated material from the corresponding Italian Wikipedia article

    Benito Mussolini as First Honorary Corporal of the MVSN.

    Mussolini as Comandante Generale was made Primo Caporale Onorario (First Honorary Corporal) in 1935 and Adolf Hitler was made Caporale Onorario (Honorary Corporal) in 1937. All other ranks closely approximated those of the old Roman army as follows.

    Officers

    Rank Insignia Royal Italian Army equivalent (with UK/US equivalent)
    Primo Caporale d'Onore
    (First Honorary Corporal of the MVSN)
    First Marshal of the Empire (None/General of the Armies)
    Caporale d'Onore
    (Honorary Corporal of the MVSN)
    Marshal of Italy (Field Marshal/General of the Army)
    Comandante Generale
    (Commandant General)
    Army General (General)
    Luogotenente Generale Capo di Stato Maggiore
    (Chief of Staff Lieutenant-General)
    Corps General (Lieutenant-General)
    Luogotenente Generale
    (Lieutenant-General)
    Divisional General (Major-General)
    Console Generale
    (Consul-General)
    Brigade General (Brigadier/Brigadier General)
    Console
    (Consul)
    Colonel
    Primo Seniore
    (First Senior)
    Lieutenant-Colonel
    Seniore
    (Senior)
    Major
    Centurione
    (Centurion)
    Captain
    Capo Manipolo
    (Chief Maniple)
    Lieutenant (Lieutenant/First Lieutenant)
    Sotto Capo Manipolo
    (Sub-Chief Maniple)
    Sublieutenant (Second Lieutenant)

    Other Ranks

    Rank Insignia Army Equivalent (with UK/US equivalent)
    Primo Aiutante
    (First Adjutant)
    Marshal-Major (Conductor/Command Sergeant Major)
    Aiutante Capo
    (Chief Adjutant)
    Chief Marshal (WO1/Sergeant Major)
    Aiutante
    (Adjutant)
    Ordinary Marshal (WO2/Master Sergeant)
    Primo Capo Squadra
    (First Squadron Chief)
    Sergeant-Major (Staff Sergeant)
    Capo Squadra
    (Squadron Chief)
    Sergeant
    Vice Capo Squadra
    (Vice-Squadron Chief)
    Corporal-Major (Corporal)
    Camicia Nera Scelta
    (Select Blackshirt)
    Corporal (Lance-Corporal/PFC)
    Camicia Nera
    (Blackshirt)
    N/A Appointee (Private)
    Legionario
    (Legionary)
    N/A Recruit/Soldier (Recruit/Private)

    Legacy

    Infamous Daily Mail article congratulating the British Union of Fascists.

    The ethos and sometimes the uniform were later copied by others who shared Mussolini's political ideas, including Adolf Hitler in Nazi Germany, who issued brown shirts to the "Storm Troops" (Sturmabteilung) and black uniforms to the "Defense Squad" (Schutzstaffel, also colloquially known as "Brownshirts", because they wore black suit-like tunics with brown shirts), Sir Oswald Mosley in the United Kingdom (whose British Union of Fascists were also known as the "Blackshirts"), the Warriors for the Advancement of the Bulgarian National Spirit who wore red shirts, William Dudley Pelley in the United States (Silver Legion of America or "Silver Shirts"), in Mexico the Camisas Doradas or "Golden Shirts", Plínio Salgado in Brazil (whose followers wore green shirts), and Eoin O'Duffy in the Irish Free State (Army Comrades Association or "Blueshirts"). "Blueshirts" can also refer to Canadian fascists belonging to the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party and to the members of Falange Española, the most influential party within Franco's dictatorship in Spain. The paramilitary fascist Iron Guard members in Romania wore green shirts.

    After the Armistice of Cassibile was signed, the Blackshirts were dissolved; in the pro-fascist Italian Social Republic they were replaced by the National Republican Guard and the Black Brigades.

    See also

    General

    Notes

    External links

    • Axis History Factbook/Italy/Militia
    • Comando Supremo
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